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How to find headless Raspberry Pi on the network
We know that RPi has OUI B8:27:EB so we need to get all MAC addresses in ARP cache.

This is for Windows, but I am sure Linux people will know how to do this:

Lets ping all addresses on the network and then run arp

(for /l %i in (1,1,254) do ping -n 1 -w 100 10.196.0.%i) & arp -a

Voila, any MAC that starts with B8:27:EB is RPi

UPDATE: As Jon pointed out, on Linux use nmap:

nmap -sP > /dev/null; arp -a | grep " b8:27:eb:"
Another way to do this is to install avahi service on your Raspberry. It allows accessing hosts via <hostname>.local without having to keep updating local DNS.

On Ubuntu it comes bundled. On Windows install Bonjour.

Folks from Adafruit have a free utility called Raspberri Pi Finder which combines two techniques: locates the Rapsberries on your network, and then installs avahi-daemon, samba, configures WiFi, and optionally installs their WebIDE
nmap is another way, you can check everything or only specific services you know will be listening on the pi
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If things weren't meant to be modified, they would not come with wires attached.
Yes, nmap is great and much faster than ping in loop.To list all raspberry pis on Linux:

nmap -sP > /dev/null; arp -a | grep " b8:27:eb:"

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